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# New Migrations

When we generated our migration, we didn’t add a way to tie Fortunes to a specific User. It may be common that you will need to generate separate migrations to update models that already exist in your application. Let’s try that now.

# Generating a new migration

We will use the gen.migration CLI task to create a new migration file that will add a reference to users from the “fortunes” table. Generate the migration like this:

lucky gen.migration AddBelongsToUserForFortune

Now we will open up the file that was generated in db/migrations/

# Writing a migration

In this file, you will see two methods; migrate and rollback. The migrate method is run when we move our migration forward (e.g. creating a new table). The rollback method is used to write the opposite of what migrate does. So if migrate creates a new table, then rollback should drop that table. You would use this to undo the last ran migration allowing you to fix, or revert your database schema.

In our case, we want to alter the “fortunes” table so we can add our user reference to it. Add this code:

# db/migrations/

def migrate
  # FYI: We will run in to an error. Be sure to keep reading before running any code
  alter table_for(Fortune) do
    add_belongs_to user : User, on_delete: :cascade, fill_existing_with: :nothing

def rollback
  alter table_for(Fortune) do
    remove_belongs_to :user

Save that file, and we can run our migration.

For more information on migrations, read the Migrations guide.

# Running our migration

Each time we generate a new migration, we must run it so it will update our database. However, if we run our migration right now, we would see an error. Lucky ensures type-safety by adding the foreign key constraints and references. By specifying user : User for the type, we tell Lucky that this association is required. We could make it optional by making the type nilable with user : User?, but this is an easy fix, so we will keep the code as is.

This error will only happen if you have fortune records. To see the error, run lucky db.migrate.

# Yak shaving

Since we don’t need any fortunes we created when playing with our app, we can just delete all of them to start fresh. This gives us a chance to see how we can run “one-off” queries similar to other frameworks that use REPL consoles.

We will use the exec CLI task which will open a code editor allowing us to write arbitrary Crystal code, including some Avram queries. Enter lucky exec.

lucky exec

This will open with VIM be default. To use a different editor, use the -e or --editor flag. (e.g. lucky exec -e code)

Once your code editor opens, you can write your query code below all of the comments. We will use the FortuneQuery object which is defined in src/queries/

Add this code:

require "../../src/"

puts "Truncating the Fortunes table"

FortuneQuery.truncate(cascade: true)

puts "done!"

Once added, save and exit the file. This will tell Lucky to compile the code, and execute it, which will run a TRUNCATE on the “fortunes” table. When it’s complete, you’ll see a message that tells you to hit enter to run more commands, or q to quit. We are done here, so type q, then hit enter to quit.

With the old data cleared out, postgres should allow us to add our foreign key constraint. We can now safely run our migration. Enter lucky db.migrate.

lucky db.migrate

# Updating the Models

Associations work in two parts; the database, and the model. We update the database by writing our migration, so now we just need to update the models.

Open up the file src/models/ This User model was generated when we ran our setup wizard by saying y to authentication.

At the bottom of the table block, we will add this new code:

# src/models/

table do
  column email : String
  column encrypted_password : String

+ has_many fortunes : Fortune

Next we will update our Fortune model in src/models/ with this code:

# src/models/

table do
  column text : String

+ belongs_to user : User

For more information on models, read the Database Models guide.

# Your Turn

At this point, our models are associated, but the application no longer works how we expect. To create a new fortune, we have to save it with the current user, but this will require some refactoring.

For now, let’s ensure our application boots up. If it fails, we can use this time to correct any issues.

Try this:

  • Boot your application. (lucky dev)
  • Sign in, and try to create a fortune. Notice it fails
  • View your logs to see “Failed to save SaveFortune”.
  • Use lucky exec to truncate all User records with the UserQuery object.
  • Then use your app to make a new user record, because we still need one 😄

We will update the forms later in the tutorial.

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